Monday, June 1, 2009

basic basketball rules

Fouls and Violations


Personal fouls: Personal fouls include any type of illegal physical contact.

Illegal pick/screen -- when an offensive player is moving. When an offensive player sticks out a limb and makes physical contact with a defender in an attempt to block the path of the defender.
Personal foul penalties: If a player is shooting while a being fouled, then he gets two free throws if his shot doesn't go in, but only one free throw if his shot does go in.

Three free throws are awarded if the player is fouled while shooting for a three-point goal and they miss their shot. If a player is fouled while shooting a three-point shot and makes it anyway, he is awarded one free throw. Thus, he could score four points on the play.

Inbounds. If fouled while not shooting, the ball is given to the team the foul was committed upon. They get the ball at the nearest side or baseline, out of bounds, and have 5 seconds to pass the ball onto the court.

One & one. If the team committing the foul has seven or more fouls in the game, then the player who was fouled is awarded one free throw. If he makes his first shot, then he is awarded another free throw.

Ten or more fouls. If the team committing the foul has ten or more fouls, then the fouled player receives two free throws.

Charging. An offensive foul that is committed when a player pushes or runs over a defensive player. The ball is given to the team that the foul was committed upon.

Blocking. Blocking is illegal personal contact resulting from a defender not establishing position in time to prevent an opponent's drive to the basket.

Flagrant foul. Violent contact with an opponent. This includes hitting, kicking, and punching. This type of foul results in free throws plus the offense retaining possession of the ball after the free throws.

Intentional foul. When a player makes physical contact with another player with no reasonable effort to steal the ball. It is a judgment call for the officials.

Technical foul. Technical foul. A player or a coach can commit this type of foul. It does not involve player contact or the ball but is instead about the 'manners' of the game. Foul language, obscenity, obscene gestures, and even arguing can be considered a technical foul, as can technical details regarding filling in the scorebook improperly or dunking during warm-ups.


Walking/Traveling. Taking more than 'a step and a half' without dribbling the ball is traveling. Moving your pivot foot once you've stopped dribbling is traveling.

Carrying/palming. When a player dribbles the ball with his hand too far to the side of or, sometimes, even under the ball.

Double Dribble. Dribbling the ball with both hands on the ball at the same time or picking up the dribble and then dribbling again is a double dribble.

Held ball. Occasionally, two or more opposing players will gain possession of the ball at the same time. In order to avoid a prolonged and/or violent tussle, the referee stops the action and awards the ball to one team or the other on a rotating basis.

Goaltending. If a defensive player interferes with a shot while it's on the way down toward the basket, while it's on the way up toward the basket after having touched the backboard, or while it's in the cylinder above the rim, it's goaltending and the shot counts. If committed by an offensive player, it's a violation and the ball is awarded to the opposing team for a throw-in.

Backcourt violation. Once the offense has brought the ball across the mid-court line, they cannot go back across the line during possession. If they do, the ball is awarded to the other team to pass inbounds.

Time restrictions. A player passing the ball inbounds has five seconds to pass the ball. If he does not, then the ball is awarded to the other team. Other time restrictions include the rule that a player cannot have the ball for more than five seconds when being closely guarded and, in some states and levels, shot-clock restrictions requiring a team to attempt a shot within a given time frame.

rebounding drills and tips

Rebound Drill
Playing inside means you're close to the basket, and it means you'll be expected to rebound the basketball. Start off on one side of the basket, about halfway to the free throw line. Toss the ball off the backboard and explode up the the ball, snatching it out of the air. Come down strong, on-balance, and turn to make an imaginary outlet pass to your point guard.

Do this drill 10 times from each side of the basket. This drills works on your jumping ability, stamina, and gets you in the habit of coming down on-balance while quickly looking to make the outlet pass to start the fast break.


Offensive Rebound and Put-Backs
As an offensive rebounder, a key focus area is going up strong for the follow up shot once you've grabbed the rebound.

Start 4 or 5 feet out from the basket on the right side. Toss the ball against the backboard and go up strong for the rebound. Keeping the ball at chest level or above, go back up strong for the shot, banking in the put-back shot. Do this 10 times from each side of the basket.

Next, do the same drill, but after grabbing the rebound, give a quick pump fake before going back up with the shot. Inside players are often anxious to block shots, so giving the quick pump fake will often get a defender off his feet or out of position so you can quickly go back up with the put-back. Do the pump fake and put back shot 10 times from each side of the basket.


Rebound Tip-Ins
As you progress through your career and get taller and stronger, the tip-in shot will likely become a bigger part of your game.

There will be times when it is better to tip the ball back into the basket than it is to actually come down with the rebound and attempt a follow-up shot. Tip in shots take lots of practice, and a fair amount of physical skill. Practice this shot, but only attempt tip-in shots during games when you are actually pretty good at doing them in practice situations.

Start 4 or 5 feet out from the basket to one side and toss the ball up against the backboard so it will bounce off the rim. As the ball is bouncing off the rim, jump up and try to tip the ball in with your right hand (from the right side). Do this 5 times. Then, switch to the left hand side of the rim. Toss the ball up so that it bounces off the rim, jump up and try to tip the ball in with your left hand.

You may want to start off by trying to put the ball back into the rim with 2 hands at the same time. As you get better, you can actually try one-handed tip-ins. The key is to time your jump properly, and use your fingertips to guide the ball back into the rim. It takes lots of practice. But in time, you should be able to utilize the tip in on occasion. Remember though: rebounding the ball, coming down with the ball, then going back up with a strong power move is often a better shot than a tip-in (which can often be a lower percentage shot).


Backboard Toss
This drill helps you work on your jumping ability, timing, and balance as you come down with the boards.

Start on one side of the basket, 2 or 3 feet out from the backboard. Toss the ball up high against the backboard as if you were passing it to someone who is standing on the opposite block. After you make the pass, take a step or two (as necessary) towards the opposite block, then explode up to grab the ball out of the air, as if you're grabbing a rebound. Really explode up into the air and snatch the ball from the sky. As you come down with the ball, be sure to come down on-balance, and ready to go back up with the shot, keeping the ball in close to your chest with both hands.

Now, throw the ball back against the backboard, over towards the opposite block and repeat the drill. But don't always throw the ball to the exact same spot. The goal is to vary the direction and distance you throw the ball slighly so that each time you explode up for the rebound, you come down in a slightly different spot. This forces you to stay on balance, and jump different distance and to different spots. In this way, you more realistically simulate rebounding in a a game situation where you're never quite sure exatly where the ball will come off of the rim, or where exactly you're going to have to jump to grab the ball. Make 10 tosses against the backboard (grabbing 10 simulated rebounds). Rest, and do another set of

Basketball Rebounding Tip #1: BOXING OUT AND REBOUND

If you are real close to the basket when the shot goes up, you must "box out" and create some space to rebound. To "box out" from your defensive position: Go towards your man and make contact. Pivot so you “Put your butt to their gut” and just slide with them, keeping them away from the rebound. When boxing out, keep your man from pushing you in towards the basket, so you can maintain good rebounding position. (If you let them push you under the basket, the rebound will go over your head). Then go get the rebound!

Basketball Rebounding Tip #2: THE "PERFECT REBOUND"

Rebounding... Most rebounds (90%) are caught below the rim. Try and think out what a perfect rebound is ... The perfect rebound is the one where everyone of your teammates and yourself box out their man so well that the rebound can be easily caught AFTER it has hit the floor. When one thinks about this "perfect rebound" concept the team blockouts get better and better.

post play tips and drills

Form Shooting Drill
Having good, solid form is a key element in being a good shooter. To work on your mechanics, use a close to the basket shooting drill.

Stand 2 or 3 feet from the backboardand on one side of the basket. Using only your shooting arm, shoot a bank shot into the basket. Use perfect form (ball on finger tips, elbow in, shoot up-and-out towards the basket, follow through with good backspin on the ball). Rebound the ball and shoot again. Shoot at least 15 shots from each side of the basket. Shoot with your right arm from the right side of the basket, and shoot with your left arm from the left side of the basket. Once you've shot 15 shots from each side, step back 2 or 3 feet further away from the basket and repeat the drill.


Mikan Drill
Named after George Mikan, one of the NBA's early stars, this drill is a key to improving your shot. The drill involves shooting a hook shot in the lane, but it really helps you improve your overall game. The Mikan drill helps you improve your hook shot, but it also helps you improve your coordination, touch around the basket, shot release, follow through, and confidence in your short range game.
Start in front of the basket, 2 to 3 feet in front of the rim. Jump off of your left leg and shoot a right-handed hook shot off the backboard and into the basket. Rebound the ball, and immediately go into the shooting motion of shooting a left-handed hook shot (jumping off of your right leg). Remember to explode up and off the ground as you shoot the shot. Keep both hands on the ball until you are in the final stages of releasing the shot. Fully extend your shooting arm, and release the ball high in the air, using your non-shooting arm to create space between you and the defender. Shoot 15 shots with each arm, then move back 2 or 3 feet and repeat the drill, shooting another 15 shots with each arm.


Distance Shooting Drill
Improving the distance on your shot is important to becoming a better offensive player. Extending your shooting range should be a goal for any player, regardless of what position you play, or what your shooting range is currently.
After you are warmed up and have done some close-in form shooting drills, work your way back to the the furthest distance from the basket you are comfortable shooting from (in other words, the extent of your current shooting range). Shoot 10 jump shots from this range. Once you have made 8 out of 10, you are ready to move back 1 to 2 feet further than you would normally shoot from. Make sure you use the same form on the shot you normally use, getting extra strength and power from your lower body. Really focus on shooting with perfect form. Shoot 10 jump shots from this distance. Then, move back another 1 to 2 feet and repeat the drill. Continue to move back 1 to 2 feet from the basket for each series of 10 shots, but stop once you are unable to maintain solid form on the shot. Once you can no longer use your typical shooting form, stop the drill. Your goal is to increase your shooting range over time, a little bit each workout.


Fake and One-Dribble Moves
There will be times in a game when you catch a pass and immediately go up for a jump shot. But it is important that you're able to shoot the basketball at the end of a move as well. Working on fake and one-dribble move drills will help you improve this part of your game, and more realistically simulates scoring opportunities you'll likely get in actual games..
Toss the ball out to yourself, catch it and pull it into your body and get into the triple threat position. Make a good, solid pump fake and then take one strong dribble to your right. Make sure your dribble moves you past an imaginary defender and towards the basket (the dribble should take you at a 45-degree angle towards the basket). Come to a solid, on-balance stop, then go up for your jump shot. Do this drill 5 times pump faking and dribbling to your right, and 5 times dribbling to your left. Do this drill from 4 to 5 different spots on the floor (for example: on the baseline, on the right and left wings, and on the right and left elbow.


Quick Shot Drill
One of the most important parts of being a good shooter is having a quick shot, and a quick shot release. Even if the defense is playing you close, a quick shot release will allow you to still take the shot, even under lots of pressure.
Here is a great quick-shot drill. The next time you go out to the court to shoot around, make a point to work on the quickness of your shot release. Take a few jump shots like you regularly do (at your regular speed). Now, concentrate on shooting the ball much more quickly. Speed up your shot, all the way from bringing the ball through your shooting pocket, to the actual shot, and the release of the basketball. Concentrate on speeding up the process, but without sacrificing or changing your shooting form at all. Shoot at least 25 jumpers at this faster speed.

Do this drill each time you take the court to work on your shot, and pretty soon you'll start to notice that you shoot the ball with a much quicker release.


Fall-Away Jumper Drill
If you watch an NBA game, you'll notice that a lot of players shoot fall-away jumpers. There's a reason for that: players in the NBA are so tall, such good athletes, and such good jumpers, that it can be very difficult to shoot the basketball. Jumping straight up and taking the jumper isn't an option, because the shot can easily be blocked.
So players look for ways to create enough space to shoot the basketball. One technique to create space is the fall-away. Try this drill and start practicing working on a fall-away jump shot. Start on the block with your back to the basket. Now, shoot a turnaround jumper to the baseline, falling slightly away from the basket. Concentrate on shooting the ball with perfect form, getting good arch on the ball, and keeping your body on-balance, even though you are drifting slightly back from the basket. Shoot 20 jumpers from each side of the basket.

Shooting these from the blocks is a good way to start learning the fall-away jumper, especially for inside players. After several workouts of shooting the fall-away from the block, move to other spots on the floor (such as the elbows, the wings, shorter shots in the lane).

Body control is very important in the game of basketball, and shooting the fall-away tests your ability to shoot the ball under control. Most coaches teach jumping straight up while shooting jump shots, and this is the right thing to teach. But as you move from one level to the next, and players get taller, and have better jumping ability, learning and using the fall-away will be a big part of your game. Now, if you have an open jump shot, then use classic jump shot form (jump straight up or slightly forward for the jumper). But if you are playing against a good defender, and he is playing you tight, a fall-away may be what you need to get room to take the jumper.

speed and agility

Basketball Speed and Agility Training
Basketball speed and agility training can make you lighter on your feet and a worthy opponent on the court. It can give you the edge you need in the game you love. There are many techniques available to the player who wants to gain the edge over other teams. One of the best ways to train for speed is to give yourself natural resistance when you are sprint training. Find a steep hill and sprint to the top and ease your breathing by walking down. By training this way, when it comes time to sprint down the court, it will seem easy!

Lateral Speed Training
Speed on the basketball court is essential, but so is developing lateral speed and agility. There are many tools available to help the serious basketball player develop this key court advantage, including Lateral Power Trainers and Power Boxes. In order to dodge and move in any sport, especially basketball, you need to develop muscles and instincts for moving side to side, backwards and forwards and in circles to get around your opponent. There are many drills for training in these skills, but don't be afraid to try out some tools and watch some training videos for pointers

Agility ladder drills
These are often associated with other sports (such as soccer or football), but every basketball player should use an agility ladder to work on their foot speed and agility.

There are various drills you can do with an agility ladder, but here are a few basics to get started:
- One foot hop (go through each box hopping on one foot, then do again with the other)
- Two foot hop (go through each box using both feet)
- High knees (go through the boxes brining your knees up high)
- Two feet in each box (using a running motion, step into a box with your right foot, then your left, then into the next box with your right, then your left and continue this pattern)
- One foot in each box (same as above, but this time, only one foot will land in each box)
- Sideways one foot in each box (sliding to your side, you'll put one foot in each box)
- Sideways two feet in each box (same as above, but both feet will hit the ground in each box)


Jump rope drills
Old school? No doubt about it. But also very effective.

Jumping rope is a great way to get warmed up for a workout, but it's also a great way to work on your foot speed. Here are a few drills:
- Speed jumps (jump fast, and we mean as fast as you can)
- One leg (alternating between your right and left foot...for example, jump 4 or 5 times on your left foot, then move to 4 or 5 jumps on your right)
- Running jumps (jump rope while moving from one end of the floor to the's more a fast walk than a run, but you get the idea)


Cone drills
Cone drills are great at making you faster. Here are a few good drills I use with my clients:
- Sliding drills (place 2 cones 6-8 feet apart and defensive slide from one to the other...then move them 10-12 feet apart and do the same. They key is to slide fast...very fast.)
- The T-Cone drill (place 3 cones in a straight line about 3 or 4 feet apart, then place 2 other cones about 10 feet apart at the top of the "T". Now, start off running back and forth between the 3 cones and out to one of the cones at the top, then back-pedal to the starting spot. Do the same thing again, this time out to the other cone at the top, and back-pedaling to the start). Go FAST.

These are just some of the drills you can do as part of your foot speed and agility training. Check back soon...we'll be adding more details in the weeks to come

increasing your vertical leap

Increase your jumping ability by getting in better overall physical shape
Being able to jump high is the result of a combination of things: natural ability, leg strength, explosive power, and your overall level of fitness. One way to get in shape, and stay in shape, is to play lots of basketball.

If you play a lot of ball, that will tranlate into being in better shape. There's no way your vertical leap will improve if you aren't in good shape. Also, there are lots of quick movements you make in a game that you can't recreate outside of actual game play. These help build your overall basketball abilities, as well as your athleticism (explosiveness, jumping ability, etc.).


Jump rope exercises
It's an old school exercise, but it works. Jumping rope is a great way to build stamina, and work on your leg strength. In addition, it builds jumping ability (explosiveness, calf strength, etc.). Adding jump rope exercises to your workout routine can pay big dividends in increasing your vertical leaping ability.


Run stadium stairs
Another old school exericse, and a great one for helping you develop length strenght and power that will help you become a better jumper.

Running stadium stairs can really help your vertical leap because it helps build stamina, leg strength, and when done right, explosiveness. To work on explosiveness, use "bounding" movements. In otherwords, don't just get from one step the the next, but really leap up from one step to the next.


Wall sits and squats
Strength training (like wall sits and squats) will help you build leg strength, which is a key component of athletic fitness, and therefore jumping ability. Remember to only use a weight that is comfortable for you, and to always have a trainer or training partner work out with you. You don't want to get hurt lifting too much weight, or lifting it improperly.


Explosive leaps
This is a great type of exercise. Do these at a park, or on a football field so that you are cushioned by the soft grass surface.

One-legged jumps are done like this: leap as high as possible off of one foot, then come down and immediately leap as high as possible off the other leg. Repeat this for 10 to 15 jumps.

Two-legged leaps are done like this: squat down so you are in the triple threat position. Now explode up and off the ground as if you are reaching for a rebound. Come down, gather yourself for a second or two, then leap up again, as high as possible. Do this 8 to 10 times.

Remember, vertical leap is part leg strength and part explosiveness. In fact, the explosiveness part is the more important of the two. It's not about the size of your leg muscles, or how much weight you can put up in the gym. It's about your athletic ability, coordination, and your ability to explode up and off the ground.


defense drills and tips

Defensive quickness drills
A big part of being a good defensive player is quickness (your ability to cut off an offensive player, your ability to slide out into the passing lane, etc.).

To help develop your quickness, work on footspeed drills such as jumping rope, doing defensive slides, running sprints, running stadium stairs, and doing cone drills. By increasing your quickness, you'll be a better defender. Here are some details on the drills you can do.

- Jumping rope: start off with a good warmup (30 to 45 seconds of jumping rope at a slow pace). Then do a series of 30 to 45 second repetitions where you jump with both feet, alternate from one foot to the other, and then jump on one foot or the other for the entire repetition.
- Defensive slides: you'll work on these during practice with your team, but you can also do these on your own. Start on the baseline at one corner of the court and slide to the middle of the lane, then switch directions and slide back to the sideline, continuing all the way up the court to the opposite baseline.
- Running sprints: go to a track and warm up with a lap or two of easy running. Then go onto the grass of the football field and run a series of sprints. Start off with some shorter sprints (20 to 30 yards), and work your way up to longer sprints (40 to 50 yards).
- Stadium stairs: running stadium stairs is a great way to get in shape and work on your agility. Start off with a good warm up, then run one set od stadium stairs stepping on each step, then one set where you kick your knees up high, one set where you put both feet on each step, one set where you run up stepping on every other step, and finally one set where you jump on each step with two feet.
- Cone drills: cone drills involve putting a cone (or some other object) on the court (or grassy field) and doing various sprint and slide movements from cone to cone. For example, place four cones about 10 yards from each other, with one cone in the center of the four. Slide from the center out to one cone, then back to the center, then out to the next cone and back to the center, continuing until you've slid out to each of the cones and back to the middle. Work on increasing your speed out and back to the cones.


As touched on in the earlier drill, defensive slides are a key to being a good defender. Work on your defensive slides to become a better defender.

Here's a great drill to become a better defender. Start under the basket, and sprint to the free throw line under control. As you near the free throw line, slow down, and chop your steps so you are under control and ready to slide (this is called "closing out" on an offensive player). Once you close out to the free throw line, slide quickly and powerfully to one corner of the court (where the sideline and baseline meet). Repeat the drill several times, sliding to one side, then the other. This gets you used to closing out on an offensive player, then quickly being able to slide to one side or the other to defend them.


Slide and jump (pressure the shot)
Being a good defender means playing great on-ball defense, and also getting a hand up on shots (to put additional pressure on the offensive player).

Start in one corner of the court (where the sideline meets the baseline), in a good defensive stance, and slide quickly and powerfully to the elbow (where the free throw line meets the corner of the lane). As you get to the elbow, imagine that the player you are guarding is going up for a jump shot. So as you near the elbow, gather yourself and leap up to block the shot. After you come down from your jump, turn to block out the shooter. Do this drill five times from each side of the court.

There will be lots of times where you have to quickly transition from a defensive slide to a jump (either to block a shot or grab a rebound). So practicing this will translate into being a better defender in game situations.


Slide and jump (pressure the shot and jump for the rebound)
This drill is similar to the one above, but adds another level of complexity, making it even more game-like and realistic.

Start in one corner of the court (where the sideline meets the baseline), in a good defensive stance, and slide quickly and powerfully to the middle of the lane. As you get to the lane, imagine that the player you are guarding is going up for a jump shot. So as you near the lane, gather yourself and leap up to block the shot. After you come down from your jump, turn to block out the shooter. Now, imagine the ball is coming off of the rim, so take a few step towards the basket, and leap up high for a rebound. Come down on balance, and turn as if you are going to make an outlet pass to start the fast break. Do this drill five times from each side of the court.

Combining multiple movements (the defensive slide, the leap to distract the shot, the jump for a rebound, and the turn to throw the outlet pass), you're more realistically practicing game-like situations. This will really give you an edge when you get into actual games and have to make these types of plays.